President Jair Bolsonaro’s interview in Jornal Nacional brought up the topic of lockdowns: the measures of closure and confinement in the Covid pandemic-19. He was contested by journalists and influencers, who claim that there was no lockdown in Brazil. In addition to the historical facts about the existence of lockdowns, there was also a debate on how rigorously they took place, whether they were mandatory measures by governments, whether citizens obeyed, and whether they were effective in containing the spread of the virus.
The clearest case of lockdown was that of Araraquara, for ten days starting from 21 in February 2021. The municipality allowed the opening of only pharmacies and health units. Food was delivered by supermarkets. The streets were patrolled and a woman was even arrested in a square – she invoked her constitutional rights but was taken by force. The mayor, Edinho Silva (PT) repeated the dose in another eight-day lockdown in June of that year.
There is no single definition of lockdown. The specialized literature talks about non-drug interventions, and a set of them, in whole or in part, can correspond to what is called a lockdown in political debate and social networks. A proposal for categorizing these interventions is in an article published in 2021 in the journal Science with first authorship by Jan Brauner, of the Theoretical and Applied Machine Learning Group at the University of Oxford. Researchers from 15 other institutions are co-authors.
Brauner and colleagues have already were working in the context of the pandemic. They proposed eight interventions that make up the lockdown, which can be organized into three large groups: Prohibition of agglomerations larger than persons, 100 persons, or 1000 persons (includes some meanings of social distancing); closing schools, universities, some types of non-essential business establishments, or most businesses; orders of isolation or confinement at home (including quarantine).
The Araraquara case meets all these criteria, as do the interventions in Wuhan at the beginning of the pandemic and in Shanghai this year, both in China.
In Brazil, the president sanctioned the Law 979 in February 2021 .979, which enforced a state of public health emergency throughout the country. The law nominally provided for isolation and quarantine, required citizens to inform health authorities if they came into contact with the coronavirus or traveled through contaminated regions, did not mention restrictions on agglomerations, but was broad enough to allow lockdowns across the country or by local authorities. . The Ministry of Health did not use the law to establish interventions that could be called a lockdown across the country, but local authorities applied it in this sense.
Measures taken by local authorities in 2021
Maranhão was the first state to implement such measures, on May 5, 2020, for 12 days, in four municipalities in the Maranhão Island Region, including the capital São Luís. The governor determined, by stimulus of a judicial decision, the closing of schools and non-essential commerce, prohibition of all types of agglomeration including in private space, mandatory masks, and restriction of the movement of citizens. At least in the letter of the decision, the Oxford criteria for lockdown were satisfied.
Following Maranhão, similar measures were implemented in nine other states: Amapá (16 municipalities), Amazonas (Barreirinha), Ceará (Fortaleza), Mato Grosso do Sul (Guia Lopes da Laguna), Pará (21 municipalities), Paraíba (50 ), Pernambuco (eight), Rio de Janeiro (three) and Tocantins (32). All these lockdowns were carried out in May and June 2020. Another seven municipalities implemented less restrictive measures in this period that would not fit the definition of lockdown, the largest being the city of Rio de Janeiro.
Once again implemented by local authorities generally not aligned with the federal government, measures that may fit the Oxford definition of a lockdown took place in 12 states of the federation in the year of 2021.
They were Amapá (16 municipalities) , Bahia (50), Ceará (35), Espírito Santo (78), Goiás (15), Mato Grosso do Sul (Colonel Sapucaia), Minas Gerais (four), Pará (32), Paraná (19, including Curitiba), Pernambuco (13), Rio de Janeiro (five, including the capital), Rio Grande do Sul (Tupanciretã), Santa Catarina (Chap. ecó) and São Paulo (53).
The Federal District and others 10 municipalities across the country have implemented stricter measures less consistent with the complete lockdown. Brasília had one of the longest, for almost the entire month of March. Most measurements in 2021 took place in February and March. A few were made in April and May. Only Araraquara repeated a lockdown in June.
The report did not assess the policies of all municipalities in detail, the similarity or dissimilarity with the lockdown as defined by the Oxford researchers was suggested in general terms by the level of isolation decreed.
Did it work?
In the article of 1000 , Brauner and colleagues suggest that, broadly speaking, the lockdown works especially in closing schools and universities. However, as shown by Gazeta do Povo in December last year, this conclusion is contradicted by a Japanese study.
The subject is simply too complex to have all the confounding factors dissipated to point to a specific effect. In the face of scientific uncertainty, it is natural for people to fill in the gaps with their political convictions. Ideologies that emphasize caring for the vulnerable and avoiding harm will tend to argue that more restrictions could have saved lives. Ideologies that are skeptical of interference with people’s way of life, of the ability of scientific hypotheses to supplant common-sense wisdom, and those that emphasize freedom will tend to accuse the interveners of killing more and imposing unacceptable costs on communities and to individuals.
It is noteworthy, as experienced science journalist John Tierney has commented, that many of the public health bodies around the world that previously rejected draconian measures such as the lockdown suddenly changed their position when they emerged the first outbreaks of Covid-19. In addition, Sweden, which rejected these measures, was not a case of tragedy in the pandemic, it was below the average mortality in Europe, and in the context of Scandinavia at least it was an ambiguous case. Their educational indicators remained positive, contrary to what happened in most countries that adopted total or halved lockdowns, which in addition to having educational losses, observed cognitive, verbal and athletic difficulties in their children.