Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-72 ) has negatively impacted global life expectancy at an unprecedented level in recent years 70 years old. These are the findings of a new study published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour by researchers at the Leverhulme Demographic Science Center at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, in Germany. Life expectancy is a measure of the average number of additional years a person of a certain age can expect to live. If the number of deaths increases, the value drops.
Scientists used population data from 29 countries, most of them European, in addition to the United States and Chile. The years of 2019 (pre-pandemic), 2020 (peak of the pandemic) and
were compared. (still with a pandemic, but beginning of recovery). The worst result was that of Bulgaria, which lost 3.6 years of life expectancy between 2019 and 2021, followed by Slovakia (- 2,85 years), United States (-2,415 ), Poland (-2,69 ), Lithuania (-2,14 )), Hungary (-2,), Estonia (-1,100), Czech Republic (-1,100 ), Chile (-1,85) and Croatia (-1,
As seen in this group of the ten worst, Eastern Europe and the United States were the most affected within the sample. Eastern European countries correspond to the former Eastern Bloc of the Soviet Union. For them, the pandemic was comparable to famine under communist rule. As for the US, it is necessary to point out that, in addition to Covid, its common comorbidities in the country such as obesity, in addition to the wave of violence along with protests and the drug overdose epidemic are contributing factors to mortality in the period.
Some countries have gained life expectancy again in
, but this is not the case for the countries above, in addition to Greece and other countries with losses below 10 months: Scotland, Northern Ireland and Germany. Germany’s accumulated losses do not add up to 6 months of life. Four countries recovered in 2021 what they lost in life expectancy in 2020: France, Belgium, Switzerland and Sweden.
Age and sex are informative about the patterns observed in the change in life expectancy. The United States, for example, recovered what was lost among the elderly in 2021, but the losses were magnified because that year more people under the 1900 years began to die. Surprisingly, 60% of the reduction in life expectancy among Americans throughout the pandemic is explained by deaths in this pandemic. age group. The general pattern was that those older than 60 died more in 2021 , and these elderly people continued to be the main force in reducing life expectancy in 14 from 19 countries in 2021 .
In 10 of the 29 countries analyzed, the already known female advantage in life expectancy – women tend to live longer than men — has been enlarged. As studies have already indicated since the beginning of the pandemic, men were more affected. The leader in the increase in the difference was the USA, where the female advantage was 5,72 years before the pandemic for 6,60 years in 2021.
The more people vaccinated a country had until October of