D. Pedro and the conquest of public opinion

The Prince Regent D. Pedro (1798-1834), future Emperor of Brazil, needs no introduction. It is important to point out here that, from an early age, the Prince developed a significant journalistic activity, participating, with relative frequency, even under a pseudonym, in the public debate. From July 1822, when the process of separation from Portugal already seemed irreversible, D. Pedro wrote and published in the Carioca press a series of articles – reproduced in the newspapers of the other provinces – , reporting to the inhabitants of Brazil the rifts with the old metropolis and the paths that its regency was taking. D. Pedro himself, in a letter to his father, D. João VI, declares that the objective of such interventions was only one: to attract the sympathies of public opinion, the “powerful queen of the world”, as he liked to say.

The two manifestos, written and published at the beginning of August, are part of this series of interventions, constituting two of his most important pieces. The first is a communiqué from the Prince Regent, Perpetual Defender of Brazil, informing the peoples of the kingdom of the reasons why the separation from Portugal, and the consequent Independence of Brazil, had become inevitable; the second deals with the same theme, but is addressed to friendly nations.

Manifesto of His Royal Highness, the Constitutional Prince Regent and Perpetual Defender Brazil, to the Peoples of this Kingdom

Brazilians! The time for deceiving men is over. Governments that still want to base their power on the pretended ignorance of the people, or on old mistakes and abuses, must see the colossus of their greatness fall from the fragile foundation on which it once stood. It was because they did not think that the Lisbon Courts forced the southern provinces of Brazil to shake off the yoke prepared for them; it was because of this thinking that I now see all of Brazil gathered around me; requiring me to defend their rights and maintain their freedom and independence. Therefore, O Brazilians, must I tell you the truth; Therefore, listen to me.

The Congress of Lisbon, arrogating to itself the tyrannical right to impose on Brazil an article of new belief, signed in a partial and promissory oath, and which in no way could involve the approval of ruin itself, compelled him to examine those pretended titles, and to know the injustice of such unfounded pretensions. This examination, which the insulted reason advised and demanded, made known to Brazilians that Portugal, destroying all established forms, changing all the old and respectable institutions of the monarchy, running the sponge of deceitful oblivion through all its relations and reconstituting itself anew , could not compel them to accept a dishonorable and degrading system, without violating those very principles on which he had founded his revolution and the right to change his political institutions, without destroying those bases, which established their new rights in the inalienable rights of peoples, without trampling the march of reason and justice, which derive their laws from the same nature of things and never from the particular whims of men.

Then, the southern provinces of Brazil, joining together themselves and taking the majestic attitude of a people that recognizes among their rights those of freedom and happiness itself, they cast their eyes on me, the son of their King, and u friend, who, seeing in his true point of view this so rich and great portion of our globe, who, knowing the talents of its inhabitants and the immense resources of its soil, saw with pain the disoriented and tyrannical march of those who so false and prematurely they had taken the names of fathers of the country, jumping from representatives of the people of Portugal to sovereigns of the entire vast Portuguese monarchy. I then thought it unworthy of myself and of the great King, whose son and delegate I am, to despise the vows of such faithful subjects; who, perhaps overcoming republican desires and propensities, despised fascinating examples of some neighboring peoples and placed all their hopes in me, thus saving royalty, in this great American continent, and the recognized rights of the Augusta Casa de Bragança.

I acceded to your generous and sincere wishes and remained in Brazil; giving part of my firm resolution to our good King, convinced that this step should be for the Courts of Lisbon the thermometer of the dispositions of Brazil, of their well-felt dignity and the new elevation of their feelings, and which would make them stop in the course they had started and enter the path of justice, from which they had strayed. So reason commanded; but the dizzying views of selfishness continued to stifle their cries and precepts, and discord pointed out new plots to them; then, as was to be expected, the resentment and indignation of the related provinces rose in rank; and, as if by a kind of magic, in a moment all his ideas and feelings converged in one point and to one end. Without the clash of arms, without the voices of anarchy, they asked me, as the guarantor of their precious freedom and national honor, the prompt installation of a Constituent and Legislative General Assembly in Brazil. I wish I could extend this moment to see if the reverie of the Lisbon Courts yielded to the voices of reason and justice, and to their own interests; but the order they suggested and transmitted to the Portuguese consuls to prohibit the dispatch of equipment and ammunition to Brazil was a sign of war and a real beginning of hostilities.

This kingdom therefore demanded , who had already declared me his Perpetual Defender, that I might most energetically and promptly provide for his safety, honor, and prosperity. If I failed in my resolve, I would betray my sacred promises on the one hand, and on the other, who could overcome the evils of anarchy, the dismemberment of its provinces and the furies of democracy? What fierce struggle between the fierce parties, between a thousand successive and found factions? To whom would the gold and diamonds from our inexhaustible mines belong; these mighty rivers, which are the strength of states, this prodigious fertility, inexhaustible source of wealth and prosperity? Who would calm so many dissident parties, who would civilize our population spread and broken by so many rivers that are seas? Who would look for our Indians in the center of their impenetrable forests through high and inaccessible mountains? Of course, Brazilians, Brazil was torn apart; this great piece of beneficent nature, which makes the envy and admiration of the nations of the world; and the benevolent views of providence were destroyed or, at least, delayed for many years.

I was responsible for all these evils, for the blood that was going to be shed and for the victims that would infallibly be sacrificed personal passions and interests. I resolved, therefore, to take the side that the people wanted and I had the Assembly of Brazil convened, in order to cement the political independence of this kingdom, without breaking all ties of the Portuguese fraternity; the whole United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves being harmonized with decorum and justice, and two families, separated by immense seas, which can only live together by the bonds of equal rights and reciprocal interests.

Brazilians! For you, it is not necessary to recall all the evils to which you were subject, and which impelled you to the Representation that the Chamber and people of this city made to me on May 23 day, which motivated my royal decree of June 3 of the current year; but the respect we owe the human race demands that we give the reasons for your justice and my behavior. The history of the achievements of the Lisbon Congress regarding Brazil is a history of with injustices and without reasons, their ends were to paralyze the prosperity of Brazil, to consume all its vitality, and to reduce it to such starvation and weakness, as to make its ruin and slavery infallible. In order for the world to be convinced of what I say, let’s go into the simple exposition of the following facts.

Legislated the Lisbon congress on Brazil without waiting for their representatives, thus postponing the sovereignty of the majority of the nation.

He was denied a delegation of executive power, which he needed so much to develop all the forces of his virility, given the great distance that separates it from Portugal, thus leaving it without laws appropriate to its climate and local circumstances, without ready resources for its needs.

He was refused a center of union and strength to weaken it, previously inciting its provinces to detach themselves from what they already had within themselves, fortunately.

He decreed governments without stability and without nexus, with three different centers of activity, insubordinate , rivals and contradictory, thus destroying its category of Kingdom, thus laying the foundations of its future greatness and prosperity, and only leaving to it all the elements of disorder and anarchy.

He actually excluded Brazilians from all honorary jobs and filled your cities with European bayonets, commanded by foreign, cruel and immoral chiefs.

He received with enthusiasm and lavished praises on all those monsters, who opened painful wounds in your hearts or promised not to stop opening them.

He threw robbing hands on the resources applied to Banco do Brasil, overloaded of an enormous national debt, which Congress never dealt with when the credit of this Bank was linked with the public credit of Brazil and with its prosperity.

Negotiated with foreign nations the alienation of portions of your territory to weaken and enslave you.

It disarmed your fortresses, stripped your arsenals, left your ports defenseless, calling all your navy to those of Portugal; exhausted your treasuries with repeated looting at the expense of troops, who came, without your begging, to shed your blood and destroy you, at the same time he forbade you to introduce foreign arms and ammunition, with which you could arm your avenging arms and support your freedom.

He presented a project of commercial relations that, under false appearances of chimerical reciprocity and equality, monopolized your riches, closed your ports to foreigners and, thus, destroyed your agriculture and industry , and reduced the inhabitants of Brazil again to the status of pupils and colonists.

From the beginning, and still treats, with unworthy debasement and contempt the representatives of Brazil, when they have the courage to punish for their rights and even (who will dare say it!) threatens them with freeing slavery and arming their arms against their own masters.

To finally end this long narrative of horrible injustices, when by first once heard that congress the expressions of your just indignation, it doubled with derision, O Brazilians, wanting to excuse its attacks with your own will and confidence.

The delegation of executive power, which the congress would reject for anti-constitutional, now a commission within this congress offers it to us, and with such liberality that, instead of a center of the same power that you only need, they want to grant you two and more. What unheard-of generosity! But who does not see that this only aims to destroy your strength and integrity, to arm provinces against provinces and brothers against brothers.

Let us wake up, then, generous inhabitants of this vast and mighty Empire, the great step towards your independence and happiness, so long advocated by the great politicians of Europe. You are already a sovereign people; you have already entered the great society of independent nations to which you had every right. National honor and dignity, the desire to be happy, the voice of the same nature, command that colonies cease to be colonies when they reach their virility and, although treated as colonies, you were not really one, and even at last you were a Kingdom. . Moreover, the same right that Portugal had to destroy its ancient institutions and establish itself, with more reason do you, who inhabit a vast and grandiose country, with a population (albeit widespread) already larger than that of Portugal, and which will grow with the speed with which grave bodies fall through space. if portuguese gal denies you this right, he himself renounces the right he can claim to have his new Constitution recognized by foreign nations, which then could allege just grounds for to interfere in their domestic affairs and to violate the attributes of sovereignty and independence of nations.

What is left for you, Brazilians? It remains for you to unite you all in interests, in love, in hopes; to bring the August Assembly of Brazil into the exercise of its functions, so that, wielding the helm of reason and prudence, it will avoid the pitfalls that unfortunately present France in the seas of revolutions, Spain and the same Portugal; so that it marks with a sure and wise hand the division of powers and firm the code of your legislation in the sound philosophy and apply it to your peculiar circumstances.

Do not doubt it, Brazilians; your representatives, occupied not with overcoming resistances, but with marking rights, supported yours, shod at their feet and unknown for three centuries; they consecrated the true principles of the Brazilian representative monarchy; D. João VI., my August father, declared King of this beautiful country, by whose love you are highly possessed; they cut off all the heads to the Hydra of anarchy and that of despotism; imposed on all employees and civil servants the necessary responsibility; and the legitimate and just will of the nation will never again see its majestic flight impeded at all times.

Firm in the invariable principle of not sanctioning abuses, where new abuses germinate at every step, your representatives spread the light and new order in the dark chaos of the public treasury, of the economic administration and of the civil and criminal laws. They had the courage to believe that useful and necessary ideas for the good of our species are not destined only to adorn the pages of books, and that the perfectibility, granted to man by the Creator and Supreme Being, must not find stumbling and contribute to the social order and happiness of nations.

You will be given a code of laws suited to the nature of your local circumstances, your population, interests and relationships, the execution of which will be entrusted to honest judges, who will administer justice to you and make all the cheats in your forum disappear, based on obscure, inept, complicated and contradictory ancient laws. They gave you a penal code dictated by reason and humanity, instead of those bloody and absurd laws, of which you have been bloody victims until now. You will have a system of taxation that respects the sweat of agriculture, the work of industry, the dangers of navigation, and the freedom of commerce; a clear and harmonious system, which facilitates the use and circulation of capital and pulls out the hundred mysterious keys that closed the dark labyrinth of finance, which did not allow the citizen to see the trace of the employment that was given to the income of the nation.

Brave soldiers, you too will have a military code that, forming an army of disciplined citizens, combines the value that defends the Homeland with the civic virtues that protect and secure it.

Cultors of the letters and sciences, almost always annoyed or despised by despotism, you will now have the open and unimpeded way to acquire glory and honor. Virtue, merit, you will come together to adorn the sanctuary of the Fatherland, without intrigue closing off the avenues of the throne, which were only open to hypocrisy and imposture.

Citizens of all classes, youth Brazil, you will have a code of national public education, which will make the talents of this blessed climate germinate and vegetate viciously and will place our Constitution under the safeguard of future generations, transmitting to the whole nation a liberal education, which communicates to its members the instruction necessary to promote the happiness of the great Brazilian whole.

Face it, inhabitants of Brazil, face the prospect of glory and grandeur that awaits you; do not be afraid of the delays of your current situation; the flow of civilization begins to run already impetuous from the deserts of California to the Straits of Magellan. Constitution and legal freedom are inexhaustible sources of wonders, and they will be the bridge through which the good old and convulsed Europe will pass to our continent. Do not fear foreign nations; Europe, which recognized the independence of the United States of America and which remained neutral in the struggle of the Spanish colonies, cannot fail to recognize that of Brazil, which, with so much justice and so many means and resources, also seeks to enter the great family of nations . We will never get involved in your private affairs; but they will also not want to disturb the peace and free trade we offer them; guaranteed by a representative government that we are about to establish.

Therefore, let no other cry be heard among you than unity. From Amazonas to Prata, no other echo resounds than Independência. Let all our provinces form the mysterious beam that no force can break. Let old worries disappear at once, substituting the love of the general good for that of any province or any city. Leave, O Brazilians, that dark blasphemers release against you, against me and against our liberal system insults, slanders and buckets; remember that if they praised you, Brazil was lost. Let them say that we have attempted against Portugal, against the motherland, against our benefactors; we, saving our rights, punishing for our justice and consolidating our freedom, want to save Portugal from a new class of tyrants.

Let them cry that we rebel against our King. He knows that we love him, as a citizen King, and we want to save him from the outrageous state of captivity to which he was reduced; ripping off the mask of hypocrisy from infamous demagogues and marking with true liberalism the just limits of political powers. Let them speak, wanting to persuade the world that we have broken all ties of union with our brothers in Europe; no, we want to establish it on solid foundations, without the influence of a party that vilely despised our rights and that, showing itself, with its bare face, tyrant and dominator in so many facts that they can no longer hide with dishonor and prejudice to our , irremediably weakens and destroys that moral force so necessary in a congress, and which is all supported by public opinion and justice.

Illustrious Bahians, a generous and ill-fated portion of Brazil, on whose soil there is clinging to those hungry and filthy harpies, how much your fate stings me! How much longer can I go and dry your tears and assuage your despair! Baianos, pride is your motto, expel from your bosom those monsters that sustain themselves on your blood; fear them not, your patience is their strength. They are no longer Portuguese, expel them and come and join us, we open our arms to you.

Brave miners, intrepid defenders of Brazilian freedom from Pernambuco, fly to the aid of your fellow brothers; it is not the cause of a province, it is the cause of Brazil that is defended in Cabral’s eldest daughter. I extinguished this nursery of uniformed wolves, who still support the bloodthirsty whims of the factional party. People from Pernambuco remember the bonfires of Bonito and the scenes in Recife. Spare, however, and love as brothers all the peaceful Portuguese, who respect our rights and desire ours and their true happiness.

Inhabitants of Ceará, Maranhão, the very rich Pará, all of you, from the beautiful and pleasant provinces of the north, come to draw up and sign the act of our emancipation, so that we can appear (it is time) directly in the great political association. Brazilians in general! Friends, let us gather; I am your countryman, I am your Defender; let us consider, as the only reward for our sweat, the honor, the glory, the prosperity of Brazil. Marching along this road you will always see me in front of you and in the place of greatest danger. My happiness (convinced you) exists in your happiness; It is my glory to rule a people who are brave and free. Give me the example of your virtues, and of your union. I will be worthy of you. Palace of Rio de Janeiro, on August 1st, 1822.

Manifesto of the Prince Regent of Brazil to the Governments and Friendly Nations

Desiring, I and the peoples who recognize me as their Prince Regent, to maintain political and commercial relations with the governments and friendly nations of this kingdom, and continue to deserve their approval and esteem that is made creditor the Brazilian character; I must briefly but truly explain to you the series of facts and reasons that have forced me to acquiesce to the general will of Brazil, which proclaims its political independence to the face of the universe; and wants, as a brother kingdom and as a great and powerful nation, to preserve its imprescriptible rights unharmed and firm, against which Portugal has always tried, and now more than ever, after the celebrated political regeneration of the monarchy by the Courts of Lisbon.

When, by chance, this rich and vast Brazilian region was presented for the first time in the eyes of the fortunate Cabral, soon avarice and religious proselytism, furniture of the discoveries and modern colonies, took possession of it through conquest ; and blood laws, dictated by passions and sordid interests, established Portuguese tyranny. The wild indigenous and the European settlers were forced to walk the same road of misery and slavery. If they dug the bosom of their hills to extract gold from them, absurd laws and the fifth soon weakened them in their work which they had barely begun; at the same time that the Portuguese State, with greedy ambition, devoured the treasures that benign nature offered it, it also made the wretched Minas bend under the weight of the most odious of tributes, capitation. They wanted Brazilians to pay even for the air they breathed and the land they walked on. If the industry of some more active men tried to reshape the products of their soil, in order to cover the nakedness of their children with them, tyrannical laws impeded and punished these noble attempts. Europeans always wanted to keep this rich country in the harshest and saddest dependence on the metropolis; because they thought it necessary for them to stagnate, or at least impoverish, the perennial source of their riches. If the activity of some settler offered his fellow citizens, from time to time, some new branch of rural wealth, naturalizing exotic, useful and precious vegetables, onerous taxes soon came to put an end to such happy beginnings. If enterprising men dared to change the course of mighty streams to extract the diamonds from their wells, they were soon stopped by the cruel agents of the monopoly and punished by inexorable laws. If the superfluity of its productions invited and demanded the exchange of other foreign productions, depriving Brazil of the general market of nations and, consequently, of its competition, which would make purchases more expensive and sales cheaper, no other recourse was left to it but to send them. them to the ports of the metropolis and thus stimulate, more and more, the sordid greed and arrogance of their tyrants. If, finally, the Brazilian, to whom provided nature has given non-ordinary talents, yearned to be educated in the sciences and the arts, in order to better know his rights or to know how to take advantage of the natural gems with which providence had endowed his country, it was necessary for him to was to go begging for them to Portugal, which had little of them and from where he was often not allowed to return.

Such was the fate of Brazil for almost three centuries, such was the petty politics that Portugal, always shy in his sights, always hungry and tyrannical, he imagined to cement his hold and maintain his fictitious splendour. Settlers and natives, conquered and conquerors, their children and their children’s children, everything was confused, everything was subject to a general anathema. And since the ambition for power and the thirst for gold are always insatiable and unbridled, Portugal did not forget to send continually ruthless pashas, ​​corrupt magistrates and swarms of fiscal agents of all kinds, who in the delirium of their passions and avarice tore the bonds of morality, both public and domestic, devoured the petty remains of the sweat and toil of the inhabitants; and they tore the bowels of Brazil, which sustained and enriched them, so that, reduced to the last despair, its people, like Muslim submissives, went on pilgrimages to the new Mecca, buying with rich gifts and offerings a life, well than dark and languid, at least more bearable and slack. If Brazil resisted this torrent of evils, if it thrived in the midst of such vile oppression, it owed it to its strong and courageous children, whom nature had cut for giants; he owed it to the benefits of this good mother, who gave them ever-reborn strength to mock the physical and moral obstacles that their ungrateful parents and brothers blatantly opposed to their growth and prosperity.

However, Brazil, although ulcerated with the memory of his past misfortunes, being naturally good and honorable, he did not fail to receive Augusta Pessoa do Senhor D. João VI and the entire royal family with inexplicable joy. He did even more, he welcomed the nobility and the people with welcoming arms, who had emigrated harassed by the invasion of the European despot. He gladly took the weight of my August Father’s throne on his shoulders. He kept the diadem that girded his forehead with splendor. He provided generously and profusely with the expenses of a new unruly Court; and, what is more, at a very great distance, without any particular interest, but only through the simple ties of fraternity, it also contributed to the expenses of the war that Portugal had so gloriously tried against its invaders. And what did Brazil gain in return for so many sacrifices? The continuation of the old abuses and the addition of new ones, introduced partly by malpractice, partly by immorality and crime. Such misfortunes called highly for a prompt reform of government, for which the addition of enlightenment and their inalienable rights enabled him, as men who formed the largest and richest portion of the Portuguese nation, favored by nature in their geographical and central position in the the middle of the globe, in its vast ports and inlets and in the natural riches of its soil; however, feelings of excessive loyalty and an extreme love for his brothers in Portugal, stopped his complaints, undermined his will and made him cede this glorious palm to his parents and brothers in Europe.

When in Portugal the cry for the political regeneration of the monarchy was raised, the peoples of Brazil entrusted with the inviolability of their rights and incapable of judging those of their brothers who were different in feelings and generosity, abandoned to these ungrateful the defense of their most sacred interests and the care of their complete reconstitution; and in the best faith in the world, they slept peacefully on the edge of the most terrible precipice. Relying on the wisdom and justice of the Lisbon congress, he expected Brazil to receive from him everything that was rightfully his. How far it was then from presuming that this very Congress was capable of so basely betraying their hopes and interests; interests that are closely intertwined with the general interests of the nation!

Now Brazil knows the mistake it had fallen into; and if Brazilians were not endowed with that generous enthusiasm, which so often confuses passing matches with the true light of reason, they would see, from the first manifesto that Portugal sent to the peoples of Europe, that one of the hidden ends of their proclaimed regeneration was to restore astutely the old colonial system, without which Portugal always believed, and still believes today, that rich and powerful cannot exist. Brazil did not foresee that its deputies, having to move to a foreign and remote country, having to fight against the inveterate worries and whims of the metropolis, lacking all the ready support of friends and relatives, would certainly fall into the nullity in which now we see them; but it was necessary for him to go through the hard lessons of experience to recognize the illusion of his wrong hopes.

But the Brazilians deserve an apology, because candid and generous souls would have to be able to train themselves that the vaunted regeneration of the monarchy had to begin with the re-establishment of the odious colonial system. It was very difficult, and almost incredible, to reconcile this absurd and tyrannical plan with the enlightenment and liberalism, which the Portuguese Congress so highly proclaimed! And even more incredible was it that there were men so bold and foolish, who dared, as I will say later, to attribute to the will and orders of My August Father, El Rei, Dom João VI, to whom Brazil owed its category of Kingdom, to want to knock down at one blow the most beautiful pattern that will make it eternal in the history of the universe. It is incredible, of course, so great a hallucination; however, the facts speak, and against the manifest truth there can be no sophistry.

While my Augusto Father did not abandon, dragged by hidden and perfidious manoeuvres, the beaches of Rio de Janeiro to unfortunately go and live in of the old Tagus, the Lisbon congress affected feelings of fraternal equality with Brazil, and luminous principles of reciprocal justice, formally declaring, in the article 21 of the Basis of the Constitution, that the fundamental law, which was going to be organized and promulgated, would only apply to this kingdom if its deputies, after meeting, declared that this was the will of the peoples they represented. But what was the astonishment of these same peoples, when they saw, in contradiction to that article and with contempt for their inalienable rights, a fraction of the General Congress deciding on their dearest interests, when they saw the ruling party of that incomplete and imperfect congress legislate on objects of transcendent importance and exclusive competence of Brazil, without the hearing of even two thirds of its representatives!

This dominant party, which even today shamelessly insults the enlightenment and probity of the sensible and upright men who in the Courts exist, he tries all the infernal and tenebrous means of politics to continue to deceive the gullible Brazil with an apparent fraternity, which had never lived in their hearts; and he cleverly takes advantage of the ravings of the Bahia Governing Board (which he had secretly promoted) to tear apart the sacred knot that linked all the provinces of Brazil to my legitimate and paternal Regency. How dared the Congress, in that factious Junta, recognize legitimate authority to sever the political ties of its province and separate itself from the center of the system to which it was linked, and this even after the Oath of my Augusto Father to the Constitution promised to the entire monarchy ? By what right, then, did this congress, whose national representation was then limited to Portugal’s, sanction such illegal, criminal acts and of the most disastrous consequences for the whole of the United Kingdom? And what were the uses that came to Bahia from there? The vain and ridiculous name of the Province of Portugal; and the worst are the evils of the civil war and the anarchy in which it is now submerged due to the fault of its first government, sold to the Lisbon demagogues, and of some other men dazzled by anarchic and republican ideas. Perhaps being Bahia a province of the poor and shy Kingdom of Portugal, when it could be preserved, was more than being one of the first of the vast and grandiose Empire of Brazil? But the views of the congress were different. Brazil should no longer be a Kingdom; he should descend from the throne of his rank; to strip himself of the royal robe of his majesty; lay down the crown and the scepter; and go back in the political order of the universe, to receive new irons and humiliate himself as a slave before Portugal.

Let’s not stop here. Let us examine the progressive march of the congress. They authorize and establish provincial governments that are anarchic and independent of each other, but subject to Portugal. They break the responsibility and mutual harmony between the civil, military and financial powers, leaving the people no other recourse to their inevitable evils than across the vast ocean – a useless and deceitful resource. He saw well the congress that shattered the majestic architecture of the Brazilian Empire; that it was going to separate and put its parts in continuous struggle, annihilate its forces and even convert the provinces into as many enemy republics. But he cared little about the misfortunes of Brazil; for the time being, it was sufficient for him to gain momentarily; there was nothing to him about cutting the tree by the roots, as long as, like the savages of Louisiana, he harvested its fruits soon, not even once.

The representations and efforts of the Governing Board and the Pernambuco’s deputies to get rid of the European bayonets, to which that province owed the sad intestinal dissensions that tore it apart, were unsuccessful. Then Brazil began to tear the dense veil that covered its eyes, and began to know what these troops were destined for; he examined the causes of the bad reception that the proposals received from the few deputies he already had in Portugal, and he increasingly lost hope of improvement and reform in the deliberations of the congress; because he saw that the justice of his rights, nor the voices and patriotism of his deputies were worth it.

It’s not all yet. The Courts of Lisbon were well aware that Brazil was crushed by the immense debt owed by the treasury to its National Bank, and that if it were to fail, innumerable families would certainly be ruined or reduced to total poverty. This object was of the greatest urgency, however, the credit of this Bank never paid them the slightest attention; rather, it seems that they were committed with all care to give it the last blow, taking from Brazil the leftovers of provincial income that should go into its Public and Central Treasury; and they even robbed the Bank for the Administration of Contracts, which the King my Augusto Father had granted him, for the amortization of this sacred debt.

Finally, the fatal decrees of my withdrawal for the Europe and the total extinction of the courts in Rio de Janeiro, while those in Portugal remained. Then, in a moment, all hopes vanished, even of conserving a delegation of the Executive Power that would be the common center of union and of force among all the provinces of this vast country; for without this common center, which gives regularity and impetus to all the movements of its social machine, nature would have done in vain everything that profusely depended on it for the rapid development of its forces and future prosperity. A strong and constitutional government was the only one that could clear the way for the argument of civilization and progressive wealth in Brazil; who could defend it from its external enemies and restrain internal factions, from ambitious and evil men, who dared to attack individual liberty and property and against the peace and public security of the State in general and of each of its provinces in particular . Without this common centre, I say again, all relations of friendship and mutual commerce, between this Kingdom and Portugal and foreign countries, would have a thousand collisions and clashes; and, instead of increasing our wealth under a solid and adequate system of public economy, we would, on the contrary, see it stupefy and wither, and perhaps completely disappear. Without this center of strength and union, finally, Brazilians would not be able to preserve their borders and natural limits, and they would lose, as the Congress is now plotting, everything they gained at the cost of so much blood and capital; and what is worse, with a slight to the national honor and pride and to its great and legitimate political and commercial interests. But, fortunately for us, outraged justice and sound policy raised a universal cry and the execution of such evil decrees was suspended.

The peoples of this Kingdom resented, seeing the contempt with that the worthy citizens of Brazil were treated, because in the numerous list of diplomats, ministers of state, advisers and military governors, not a single Brazilian appeared. The sinister ends why these new pashas were appointed, with the golden title of Governors of Arms, are now manifest; it is enough to pay attention to the uniform behavior that they have had in our provinces, opposing the dignity and freedom of Brazil; and just look at the consideration with which the Cortes listen to their offices and the interference they take in civil and political matters, far removed from any military command. The condescension with which the Cortes received the congratulations of the fratricidal troop expelled from Pernambuco and, a little while ago, the approval given by the dominant party of the congress to the revolting procedures of General Avilez, which, to add to the evils and suffering, even caused the premature death of my dear son, Prince Dom João; the scorn and derision with which the bloody scenes of Bahia, perpetrated by the infamous Madeira, have lately been heard, whom they will reinforce with new troops, despite the protests of the deputies of Brazil; All this shows that after the freedom of the provinces had been subjugated, the gris Despite their just claims, denounced as unconstitutional the patriotism and honor of the citizens, these disorganizers only intend to establish, under the deceptive words of union and fraternity, a complete military despotism with which they hope to crush us.

No just government, no civilized nation will fail to understand that, deprived of an Executive Power in Brazil, the necessary courts having been extinguished, and forced to go to Portugal, through delays and dangers, for graces and justice, called to Lisbon for the leftovers of income. of its provinces, its category of Kingdom annihilated and the latter dominated by the bayonets sent by Portugal, all that remained for Brazil was to be erased forever from the number of free nations and peoples, being once again reduced to the old colonial and exclusive trade state. But it was not convenient for Congress to patent, before the civilized world, its hidden and abominable projects; he therefore sought to rebuke them again, appointing commissions in charge of dealing with the political and mercantile affairs of this Kingdom. The opinions of these commissions run through the universe and definitively show all the Machiavellianism and hypocrisy of the Lisbon Courts, which can only deceive ignorant men and give new weapons to the undermined enemies who live among us. These false and bad politicians now say that Congress wants to be instructed in the votes of Brazil and that it has always wanted to get its deliberations right; if this is true, because even now the Lisbon Courts reject everything proposed by the few deputies we have there.

This special commission, in charge of the political affairs of this Kingdom, already had in its possession the representations of many of our provinces and chambers, in which they asked for the derogation of the decree on the organization of provincial governments and my retention in this Kingdom as Prince Regent. But what did the Commission do? He responded to none of this and only proposed my temporary stay in Rio de Janeiro, without entering into the duties that should belong to me, as delegate of the executive power. The people demanded a single center of that power, to avoid the dismemberment of Brazil into isolated and rival parts. What did the Commission do? It was so Machiavellian that it proposed to grant Brazil two or more centers, and until the provinces that so wished to correspond directly with Portugal.

Many, many times they raised their cries in favor of Brazil. our deputies; but their voices expired, choked by the insults of the salaried rabble in the galleries. They always responded to all their complaints that they were either against the articles already enacted in the Constitution, or against the internal regulations of the Cortes, or that they could not derogate from what had already been decided, or, finally, they responded proudly: here there are no deputies from provinces. , all are deputies of the nation, and only plurality should count; false and unheard-of principle of public law, however, very useful to the rulers, because, shielded by the majority of European votes, they rendered null and void those of Brazilians, thus being able to enslave Brazil to their liking. The letter addressed to me by the government of São Paulo was presented to Congress and, soon after, the unanimous vote of the deputation that was sent to me by the government, Chamber and clergy of its Capital. Everything was wasted. The Junta of that government was insulted, labeled a rebel and worthy of being criminally prosecuted. Finally, through the free press, Brazilian writers showed the world the injustices and mistakes of Congress; and in return for their loyalty and patriotism they were venalized and only inspired by the evil genius in the Machiavellian opinion of the commission.

In view of all this, it is no longer possible for Brazil to launch a veil of eternal oblivion over so many insults and atrocities; nor is it equally possible that he could ever have confidence in the Courts of Lisbon, finding himself at every step deceived, already torn apart by a civil war begun by these iniquitous people, and even threatened with the horrible scenes of Haiti, which our furious enemies so much they wish to revive.

Is it not also a real beginning of hostilities to forbid that government that foreign nations, with whom we freely traded, import military and naval equipment to us? Shall we equally suffer if Portugal offers to cede to France a part of the province of Pará, if that power wants to supply it with troops and ships, with which it can better handcuff our wrists and suffocate our justice? The brash Brazilians can forget that the same proposals, and for the same purpose, were made to England, with the offer to perpetuate the Trade Treaty of 1810 and still with biggest advantages? How much is the ill will and impoliteness of these Courts!

Furthermore, the Lisbon Congress, not sparing the slightest attempt to oppress and enslave us, has spread a court of hidden emissaries, who they employ all the resources of cunning and perfidy to disorient the public spirit, disturb good order and foment disunity and anarchy in Brazil. Attesting to the just resentment that this people bears against despotism, these perfidious emissaries never cease, to pervert public opinion, to poison the most just and pure actions of my government, daring recklessly to impute to me a desire to completely separate Brazil from Portugal and from revive the old arbitrariness. In vain, however, they try to disunite the inhabitants of this Kingdom; the honorable Europeans, our countrymen, will not be ungrateful to the country that adopted them as children and has honored and enriched them.

Still not content, the courtiers, with all this series of perfidies and atrocities , dare to insinuate that a large part of these disastrous measures are emanations of the executive power; as if the character of El Rei, the Benefactor of Brazil, were capable of such Machiavellian perfidy; as if Brazil and the whole world did not know that Mr. João VI, my Augusto Father, is really a prisoner of the State, under complete coercion and without free will, as a true monarch should have who enjoyed those attributions that any legitimate Constitution, however narrow and suspicious it may be, must not deny it; Europe and the entire world know that among its ministers, some are in the same circumstances and others are creatures and supporters of the dominating faction.

Undoubtedly, the provocations and injustices of the Congress to with Brazil, they are the daughters of opposing parties, but linked against us; Some want to force Brazil to separate from Portugal, the better to give the constitutional system a tourniquet there; others want the same, because they want to join Spain; therefore, it is not surprising in Portugal to write and shamelessly use the floor that that Kingdom uses with the loss of Brazil.

Blind, therefore, of pride, or dragged by revenge and selfishness, decided the Cortes, with two tears of pen, a matter of the greatest importance for the Great Lusitanian Family, establishing, without consulting the general will of the Portuguese of both hemispheres, the seat of the monarchy in Portugal, as if that minimal part of Portuguese territory, and its stagnant and cramped village should be the political and commercial center of the entire nation. Indeed, it suits scattered states, but united under a single chief, that the vital principle of their movements and energy exist in the most central and powerful part of the great social machine, so that the impulse is communicated to the entire periphery with With the greatest readiness and vigor, Brazil certainly had the unmistakable right to have within itself the seat of the Executive Power. Indeed, this rich and vast country, whose elongated coasts extend from two degrees beyond the Equator to the Rio de la Plata, and are bathed by the Atlantic, is located almost in the center of the globe, on the edge of the great channel through which trade takes place. of nations, which is the bond that unites the four parts of the world. On the left is Brazil, Europe and the most considerable part of America, opposite Africa, on the right, the rest of America and Asia, with the immense archipelago of Australia, and on the coast the Pacific Sea or the Maximum Ocean, with the Strait of Magellan and Cape Horne almost at the door.

Who ignores, equally, that it is almost impossible to give new strength and energy to aged and outdated peoples. Who ignores, today, that the beautiful days of Portugal are past and that only from Brazil can this small portion of the monarchy hope for secure support and new strength to acquire once again its old virility! But Brazil will certainly not be able to provide him with these aids, if these fools reach him to sever his strength, disunite him and ruin him.

In such a systematic series of follies and atrocities , what should be the behavior of Brazil? Should I suppose the Lisbon Courts ignorant of our rights and conveniences? No, certainly; for there are men there, even among the factious, though evil, not altogether ignorant. Should Brazil suffer and be content only with humbly asking for the remedy of its ills from merciless and selfish hearts? Does he not see that, when the despots are changed, despotism continues? Such behavior, besides being inept and dishonorable, would plunge Brazil into an unfathomable sea of ​​misfortunes; and Brazil is lost, the monarchy is lost.

Placed by Providence in the midst of this vast and blessed country, as heir and legitimate delegate of El Rei, my Augusto Father, is the first of my obligations not only to care for the good of the Brazilian peoples, but also for the good of the whole nation that one day I must govern. To fulfill these Sacred Duties, I consented to the votes of the provinces, which asked me not to abandon them; desiring to be right in all my resolutions, I consulted the public opinion of my subjects and had the appointment and summons of attorneys general from all the provinces, to advise me in the affairs of state and of their common usefulness. Then, to give them a new proof of my sincerity and love, I accepted the title and duties of Perpetual Defender of this Kingdom, which the peoples conferred on me; and, finally, seeing the urgency of the events and hearing the general votes of Brazil, which wanted to be saved, I ordered a Constituent and Legislative Assembly to work for its solid happiness. This is what the peoples demanded, who consider my August Father and King deprived of their liberty and subject to the whims of that band of factions that dominate the Courts of Lisbon, from whom it would be absurd to expect just and useful measures for the destiny of Brazil and for the true good of the entire Portuguese nation.

I would be ungrateful to Brazilians – my promises would be perjury – and unworthy of the name of Prince Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves if I did otherwise. But I protest at the same time before God and in the face of all friendly and allied nations, that I do not wish to sever the bonds of union and fraternity that must make the entire Portuguese nation a single well-organized political whole, I also protest that it saves the due and just union of all parts of the monarchy under one King, as the supreme head of the executive power of the whole nation, I will defend the legitimate rights and the future constitution of Brazil, which I hope will be good and prudent, with all my strength, and at the cost of my own blood, if necessary.

I have expounded with sincerity and conciseness to the governments and nations, to whom I address myself in this manifesto, the causes of the final resolution of the peoples of this kingdom. If the King, Mr. João VI, my August Father, were still in the heart of Brazil, enjoying his freedom and legitimate authority, he would certainly be pleased with the wishes of this loyal and generous people; and the immortal founder of this Kingdom, who already in February of 1821 had called to Rio de Janeiro Cortes Brasileiras, could not fail at this moment to summon them, in the same way that I did now , but our King being a prisoner and captive, it is up to me to save him from the outrageous state to which the factions of Lisbon reduced him. It belongs to me, as its delegate and heir, to save not only Brazil, but with it the entire Portuguese nation.

My firm resolution, and that of the peoples I govern, are legitimately enacted. I hope, therefore, that the wise and impartial men of the whole world and that the governments and friendly nations of Brazil will do justice to such just and noble sentiments. I invite you to continue with the Kingdom of Brazil the same relations of mutual interest and friendship. I will be ready to receive your ministers and diplomats and to send mine to them, while the captivity of El Rei, my August Father, lasts. The ports of Brazil will continue to be open to all peaceful and friendly nations, for the lawful trade that the laws do not prohibit; European settlers who emigrate here will be able to count on the fairest protection in this rich and hospitable country. Scholars, artists, capitalists and entrepreneurs will also find friendship and welcome. And as Brazil knows how to respect the rights of other peoples and legitimate governments, it also expects, for fair retribution, that their inalienable rights will also be respected and recognized by them, in order not to see, otherwise, the hard need to act against the desires of your generous heart. Palace of Rio de Janeiro, August 6th, one thousand eight hundred and twenty-two.

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